Procrastination is a “Curse”

Muzamil Maqbool

According to Wikipedia, “Procrastination is the avoidance of doing a task that needs to be accomplished. It is the practice of doing more pleasurable things in place of less pleasurable ones, or carrying out less urgent tasks instead of more urgent ones, thus putting off impending tasks to a later time. Sometimes, procrastination takes place until the “last minute” before a Deadline. Procrastination can take hold on any aspect of life-putting off cleaning the stove, repairing a leaky roof, seeing a doctor or dentist, submitting a job report or academic assignment or broaching a stressful issue with a partner. Procrastination can lead to feelings of guilt, inadequacy, depression and self-doubt”.

I wanted to write about Time Management but a friend of mine updated her post as “Procrastination” on Facebook and in comments  i wrote” IS A CURSE”. Since then i am gathering data to write about Procrastination.

According to me, Procrastination is a curse who makes us tedious, lousy and we keep things off for later time. Procrastination seems to become a skill that we use very often as students, Employees and instead of embracing this laziness; we should be trying to find solutions to get rid of this negative habit. As each day goes by, we have various tasks at hand that we decide to push back until the last minute. But why not just get it done and over with? Thousands of people especially students all over the world suffer from procrastination habits daily. If you allow it to, procrastination WILL control your life. Even though I am faced with so many activities to participate in daily, I know I should focus strictly on my Work and important tasks that I need to complete. Being a Consultant, I am faced with many assignments and Challenges to work on, and from experience, lazy and rushed work is never good. Developing the habit of being a procrastinator only seems to make things worse for me as time passes on. Therefore, I must push myself to work hard even when I don’t feel like it.

As human beings, we somehow develop an urge to get lazy or get distracted very often. I am guilty of this, and I couldn’t help but notice how much waiting until the last minute hinders things, rather than helps it. In my life, I find so many other things to do rather than what I am SUPPOSED to do. I would rather go shopping than write a five-page essay, but then again, who wouldn’t?

No matter how hard you try, overcoming procrastination isn’t an easy task. It also seems almost impossible to control. Think of it as a huge cycle that holds you back from the important things in life. Within this cycle, you continuously put important tasks behind until the day they need to be completed, you rush to do it, and you stress yourself out to extreme measures during the process of getting it done. Then, from that point you receive another task, wait until the last minute and the cycle begins all over again. But, you can break this cycle. You can change it by getting a planner, setting reminders, and being more aware of your time management. After many failed attempts, you will become tired of waiting until the last few hours to write essays and study for exams. You’ll also be dissatisfied with the grades produced from cramming. If you can control how much you procrastinate, it can be a huge benefit. You’ll see improvement within yourself and your academics. This can be mastered easily if you start by not telling yourself “I’ll do it later.”


Alright, Let’s first understand why do we procrastinate

Definitions are great and all, but why do we procrastinate? What is going on in the mind that causes us to avoid the things we know we should be doing on time?

Behavioral psychology/Life Skills research has revealed a phenomenon called “Time inconsistency,” which helps explain why procrastination seems to pull us in despite our good intentions. Time inconsistency refers to the tendency of the human brain to value immediate rewards more highly than future rewards.   The best way to understand this is by imagining that you have two selves: your Present Self and your Future Self. When you set goals for yourself like losing weight or writing a book or learning a language, you are actually making plans for your Future Self. You are envisioning what you want your life to be like in the future. Researchers have found that when you think about your Future self, it is quite easy for your brain to see the value in taking actions with long-term benefits. The Future Self values long-term rewards. However, while the Future Self can set goals, only the Present Self can take action. When the time comes to make a decision, you are no longer making a choice for your Future Self. Now you are in the present moment, and your brain is thinking about the Present Self. Researchers have discovered that the Present Self really likes instant satisfaction, not long-term payoff. So future self wants to be fit and slim while present self want a milk shake. This is exactly what happens during the moment when we finally move beyond procrastination and take action. For example, let’s say you have a report to write. You’ve known about it for weeks and continued to put it off day after day. You experience a little bit of nagging pain and anxiety thinking about this paper you have to write, but not enough to do anything about it. Then, suddenly, the day before the deadline, the future consequences turn into present consequences, and you write that report hours before it is due. The pain of procrastinating finally escalated and you crossed the “Deadline.”

I work with a World’s leading consulting firm where in we have to send reports on daily, Weekly, Fortnightly and monthly. For Weekly, Fortnightly and MONTHLY,I sit down every evening to fill my excel sheet, Even though, i feel tired, boring and not at all energetic while coming back from office but to evade procrastination i do it on my daily basis.  It not only saves my time but also give me a sign of relief that i don’t have to hurry up like others at the 11th hour. Many of my friends who procrastinate things get into trouble and to finish the work at the 11th hour, they often end up making it more badly.

People also procrastinate because

1: They have very low self control.

2: They fail at estimating the commitments.

3: You are Plain LAZY

4: You see some tasks as Humongous and Complicated.

5: You are scared to fail.

Different scholars, Writers, Authors and Motivational Speakers have shared their experience as “How to avoid Procrastination” I have written down few points which can be very helpful for all of us.



Option1: Temptation bundling

Is a concept that came out of behavioural economics research performed by Katy Milkman at The University of Pennsylvania. Simply put, the strategy suggests that you bundle a behaviour that is good for you in the long-run with a behaviour that feels good in the short-run.

Here are a few common examples of temptation bundling:

  • Only listen to audiobooks or podcasts you love while exercising.
  • Only get a pedicure while processing overdue work emails.
  • Only watch your favourite show while ironing or doing household chores.
  • Only eat at your favourite restaurant when conducting your monthly meeting with a difficult colleague.


Option2: Make the Consequences of Procrastination More Immediate

There are many ways to force you to pay the costs of procrastination sooner rather than later. For example, if you are exercising alone, skipping your workout next week won’t impact your life much at all. Your health won’t deteriorate immediately because you missed that one workout. The cost of procrastinating on exercise only becomes painful after weeks and months of lazy behaviour. However, One day i committed to work out with a friend of mine at 7 am from Monday, I skipped this workout, the cost of skipping this workout become more immediate. I missed this one workout and i looked like a jerk.


Option 3: Keep Reminders

If you are too into social media these days then you need to cut off a bit as social media is the biggest reason of procrastination as per the recent research done by Harvard. To help you out here i personally keep sticky notes on my Laptop screen. While doing some important work, i sometimes pick up my phone to check messages and get into long conversation and i only come back when i see a sticky note on my laptop which reads as (Stop wasting your time on FB) A small reminder but a huge impact. In the same way my friend has kept a poster on a wall in her Room which reads as (Stop thinking and start working).

Get a support team, tell your friends, Roommates and Parents to remind you about your work / deadlines or to check up on you. Tell them to remind you about your GOALS.

Option4: Break down your work into easy tasks.

The great way to make tasks more achievable is to break them down. For example, consider the remarkable productivity of the famous writer Anthony Trollope. He published 47 novels, 18 works of non-fiction, 12 short stories, 2 plays, and an assortment of articles and letters. How did he do it? Instead of measuring his progress based on the completion of chapters or books, Trollope measured his progress in 15-minute increments. He set a goal of 250 words every 15 minutes and he continued this pattern for three hours each day. This approach allowed him to enjoy feelings of satisfaction and accomplishment every 15 minutes while continuing to work on the large task of writing a book.

Option5:  Recognize You have a Problem in procrastinating.

We fill out To do List” with unimportant tasks.

We decide to do something else that consider fun instead of working on the task.(ex. Facebook, X-BOX,What’sApp and messenger)

We keep putting important tasks for the next day and next and next.

We easily say yes to anything that takes us away from work.

Option6: Get organized and get started.

As i was going through a Life-Skills module on Time management with my Trainees, I showed them practically the importance of Goals setting. If we set up our short term and long terms Goals, Personal and Career Goals then we won’t have time to even think about procrastination. Goals help us to move further successfully and on time.

There is an old saying that goes as, if you have to eat a frog every day, eat that in morning.

(Brian Tracy says “Frog should be a difficult task on your To “Do “List and the one we most likely procrastinate on.

If we eat this frog in the morning, it will give us energy to do other thing in our entire day. It takes 15 minutes for brain to get started to become engaged. Once you have reached this level of engagement, you will see that it will be hard to stop.

Option 7: Eliminate Distractions

One the biggest distractions these days are your Phone. Keep it away. I keep telling this to my trainees to keep Facebook, cell phones, iPods away when you are doing some important task. Nothing else is important then your career. Distractions can be someone you talk over the phone. YOUR GIRLFRIEND OR YOUR BOYFRIEND OR NEGATIVE COLLEGUE WHO ALWAYS BRAG NEGATIVE THINGS ABOUT YOUR CURRENT ORGANIZATION. Stay away from these distractions for Good.

Option8: Reward Yourself

After reaching mini Goals or your deadlines, Reward yourself with a break, a movie, or a treat to motivate you to continue for your ultimate Nirvana. Whenever we finish our work, we become happy and naturally HIGH as our brain releases a substance called “Endorphin” Lets us make this as our positive addiction. For e.g. after finishing this write-up i will treat myself with a hot bowl of chicken soup. Gosh! I can’t wait. I need to hurry up.

Option9: 6P Formula

Proper Prior Planning prevents poor performance. Before starting any work, do a bit of planning. This will save you many hours. It will also make your work easy because if we don’t have any proper prior planning, it creates a huge confusion which leads to procrastination.

Option10:  Why do you need to Avoid Procrastination and work on it. Start working now.


1: You will lose your precious time.

2: You will lose your great opportunities. Ask me i have lost one recently.

3: The biggest interruption in your personal and career Goals.

4: Procrastination could ruin your career.

5: You will end up losing your self-esteem. You will feel not worthy anymore.

6: You will make late, ill and poor decisions. Even after making this decision you will have confusion hanging above your head.

7: You will damage your reputation. In your school/college or at your workplace.

8: You will risk your health. More depression which will lead to other stomach problems.

9: You will become less social and responsible person.

10: You will always have a negative though attack, which will give you sleepless nights.

(Muzamil Maqbool is a Life-Skills Consultant and author of a Book “i AM NOT A STEREOTYPE”. He has worked with many international organizations globally. Views are Personal and not from the organization he works for)


Prophet Muhammad’s Letter To The Monks Of St. Catherine Monastery

In 628 C.E. Prophet Muhammad (s) granted a Charter of Privileges to the monks of St. Catherine Monastery in Mt. Sinai. It consisted of several clauses covering all aspects of human rights including such topics as the protection of Christians, freedom of worship and movement, freedom to appoint their own judges and to own and maintain their property, exemption from military service, and the right to protection in war.

An English translation of that document is presented below.

This is a message from Muhammad ibn Abdullah, as a covenant to those who adopt Christianity, near and far, we are with them.

Verily I, the servants, the helpers, and my followers defend them, because Christians are my citizens; and by
Allah! I hold out against anything that displeases them.
No compulsion is to be on them.

Neither are their judges to be removed from their jobs nor their monks from their monasteries.

No one is to destroy a house of their religion, to damage it, or to carry anything from it to the Muslims’ houses.
Should anyone take any of these, he would spoil God’s covenant and disobey His Prophet. Verily, they are my allies and have my secure charter against all that they hate.

No one is to force them to travel or to oblige them to fight.The Muslims are to fight for them. If a female Christian is married to a Muslim, it is not to take place without her approval. She is not to be prevented from visiting her church to pray.

Their churches are to be respected. They are neither to be prevented from repairing them nor the sacredness of their covenants.No one of the nation (Muslims) is to disobey the covenant till the Last Day (end of the world).


Source: Internet

Rabia al Basri R.A

Brief History of Hazrat Rabia al Basri R . A

Hazrat Rabia Basri (R.A)

Rābiʻa al-ʻAdawiyya al-Qaysiyya (Arabic: رابعة العدوية القيسية‎) or simply Rābiʻa al-Basrī (Arabic: رابعة البصري‎) (717–801 C.E.) was a female Muslim Sufi saint who is highly regarded and has been conferred the status of Half-Qalander.

Life sketch

She was born between 95 and 99 Hijri in Basra, Iraq. Much of her early life is narrated by Farid al-Din Attar, a later Sufi saint and poet, who used earlier sources. Rabia herself did not leave any written works.

Rabi’a’s parents were so poor that there was no oil in house to light a lamp, nor a cloth even to wrap her with.

She was the fourth child in the family. Her mother requested her husband to borrow some oil from a neighbor. But he had resolved in his life never to ask for anything from anyone except the Creator; so he pretended to go to the neighbor’s door and returned home empty-handed.

In the night Prophet Mohammad (Peace be upon Him) appeared to him in a dream and told him, “Your newly born daughter is a favorite of the Lord, and shall lead many Muslims to the right path. You should approach the Amir of Basra and present him with a letter in which should be written this message; ‘you offer Durood to the Holy Prophet one hundred times every night and four hundred times every Thursday night. However, since you have failed to observe the rule last Thursday, as a penalty you must pay the bearer four hundred dinars ‘.

Rabi’a’s father got up and went to the Amir straight with tears of joy rolling down his cheeks. The Amir was delighted on receiving the message and knowing that he was in the eyes of Prophet, he distributed 1000 dinars to the poor and paid with joy 400 to Rabi’a’s father and requested him top come to him whenever he required anything as he will benefit very much by the visit of such a soul dear to the Lord.”  

After the death of her father a famine overtook Basra and she parted from her sisters. Once she was accompanying a caravan, which fell into he hands of robbers. The chief of the robbers took Rabi’a I his custody and as an article of loot, and sold her in the market as a slave. The new master of Rabi’a used to take hard service from her.

She used to pass the whole night on prayers, after she had finished her household jobs. She used to pass many her day observing fast.

Incidentally, once the master of the house got up in the middle of the night, and was attracted by the pathetic voice in which Rabia was praying to her Lord. She was entreating in these terms,

“Lord! You know well that my keen desire is to carry out Your commandments and to serve Thee with all my heart, O light of my eyes. If I were free I would pass the whole day and night in prayers. But what should I do when you have made me a slave of a human being?”  

At once he felt that it was sacrilegious to keep such a saint in his service. He decided to save her himself. In the morning he called her and told his decision that thenceforward he would serve her and she should dwell there as the mistress of the house and if she insisted on leaving the house he was willing to free her from bondage.

She told him that she was willing to leave the house to carry on her worship in solitude. This the master granted and she left the house

Was the door ever closed?
Salih Qazwani always taught his disciples, “Who knocks at the door of someone constantly, one day the door must be opened to him” Rabi’a one day heard it and said,

“Salih, how long ‘will you go on preaching thus, using the future tense, saying ‘will be opened’? Was the door ever closed? It was ever open.

Separation, simply unbearable!
One day, people asked why she kept no knife in the house. Rabi’a replied,

“Cutting asunder is the wok of the knife. I fear it may not asunder the bond between that exist between me and my beloved Lord.”

A fervent prayer
One day she was going on an errand. Whilst passing a street a vagabond pursued her. She ran to save herself from him, and in doing so her foot slipped and she fell down and broke her arm.

She thereupon prayed to the Lord,

“I am poor orphan and a slave. Now my hand too is broken. But I do not mind these things if Thou be pleased with me. But make it manifest to me that you are pleased with me.”

The Divine voice in reply said, “Never mind all these sufferings. On the day of judgment you shall be accorded the status that shall be the envy of the angels even.” Then she returned to her master’s service.

Thanking the Lord
One day Sufyan Thauri went to Rabi’a. She passed the whole night in worship, standing before the Lord. When the morning broke she remarked,

“God be praised that He conferred His grace on us that we could pass the whole night in prayers. As a mark of gratitude, let us pass the whole day in fasting.”

The joy of pain!
A man was crying, “Ah! How great a pain!” Rabi’a approached him and said, “Oh! What a lack of pain” He asked her why she said the contrary. She replied,

Because pain is the privilege of great devotees, who cherish even with the joy even so much anguish that even talking and drawing breath become a matter of strain to them.”

Why no bandage for His blessings?
One day Rabia saw a man passing on the way with his forehead tied with a bandage. She asked him why he put on the bandage. He replied that he was suffering from headache.

“What is your age?” she asked.

He replied that he was thirty.

She asked, “Till today, how have you passed your life?”

He replied, “In perfect health”.

She said, “For thirty years the Lord kept you sound, and you did not fly any colors on your body to express your gratitude for His gift, so that people could ask you the reason for your joy and knowing of God’s blessings on you would have praised Him, but when for your own fault you have suffered from a little headache you have tied a bandage and go about exhibiting His harshness to you in making you suffer from headache. What a base act is yours!”

Neither this nor that world, You are enough for me
O Lord,

If  tomorrow on Judgment Day
You send me to Hell,
I will tell such a secret
That Hell will race from me
Until it is a thousand years away.

O Lord,
Whatever share of this world
You could give to me,
Give it to Your enemies;
Whatever share of the next world
You want to give to me,
Give it to Your friends.
You are enough for me.

O Lord,
If I worship You
From fear of Hell, burn me in Hell.

 O Lord,
If I worship You
From hope of Paradise, bar me from its gates.

But if I worship You for Yourself alone
Then grace me forever the splendor of Your Face.

Rabia was in her early to mid eighties when she died, having followed the mystic Way to the end. She believed she was continually united with her Beloved. As she told her Sufi friends, “My Beloved is always with me” She died in Jerusalem in 185 AH.

See Zirkali, al-A`lam, vol. 3, p 10, col 1, who quotes ibn Khalikan as his source. 




Kashmir “Past and Present”.

Kashmir Conflict

(Mandatory Brief History)

Born from the partition of India in 1947, the conflict in Kashmir continues today, involving three nuclear powers – China, India and Pakistan – who are in dispute over the territory. The conflict is set against the backdrop of the Himalayan mountains and valleys and involves a patchwork of languages, religions and ethnicities: notably Kasmiris, Dards, Ladakhis, Dogras, Hanjis, Gujjars and Bakarwals.

The dispute over the region has continued for more than six decades, at huge cost. Since the 1989 insurgency – 42 years after the partition – there are estimated to be at least80,000 dead and 9,000 missing by local human rights groups. Today Kashmiris face life alongside a huge military presence and ongoing militia operations. Although a ceasefire agreement was made between India and Pakistan in 2003, and the 2000s saw internal violence largely give way to non-violent protest, the calm is often punctuated by military and insurgent operations from both sides.

Since the 2008 Mumbai attacks by Pakistani militants, there have been numerous violent incidents between India and Pakistan along the border, leading to a statement by the Indian defence minister A.K. Anthony that there has been an 80% increase in ceasefire violations compared to the same period last year by Pakistan, pushing the likelihood of successful peace talks even further away.

As of 2013, India administers 43 per cent of the region – including most of Jammu, the Kashmir Valley, Ladakh and the Siachen Glacier. Pakistan controls 37 per cent of Kashmir, namely Azad Kashmir and the northern areas of Gilgit and Baltistan. In addition, China occupies 20 per cent of Kashmir following the Sino-Indian War of 1962. The Shaksam Valley, which China claims, is part of Tibet.

Indo-Pakistani War of 1947

Amidst the tumult of independence the Hindu ruler Maharaja Hari Singh of Kashmir signed the Standstill Agreement with Pakistan. The Maharaja delayed his decision to accede to either India or Pakistan in an effort to remain independent, but was forced to choose when internal revolt in the Poonch region turned into an organised rebellion of the majority Muslim population. Mass killings of Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims throughout the year led to hundreds of thousands of refugees fleeing their homes where they were in the religious minority, and culminated in Pathan tribesmen and the Poonch rebels invading Kashmir, killing large numbers in Baramula.

Even though Kashmir had a large Muslim majority, the Maharaja eventually signed the Instrument of Accession putting Jammu and Kashmir under Indian control, allowing India to send in forces to repel the Pakistani presence and kick-start the war. This move was, as suggested and accepted by India, supposed to be temporary until a plebiscite could be conducted which would enable the Kashmiri people to choose who would rule them, though this has never materialised.

The war continued until 1948 when India requested the involvement of the UN Security Council. The Council passed a resolution that imposed an immediate ceasefire and called on Pakistan to withdraw all military presence. In addition, it stated that India could retain a minimum military presence, while Pakistan would have no say in administration and “the final disposition of the State of Jammu and Kashmir will be made in accordance with the will of the people expressed through the democratic method of a free and impartial plebiscite conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.” The ceasefire was enacted on 31 December 1948, however Pakistan did not withdraw its troops from the region and a plebiscite was not conducted, leading to the beginning of increasing unrest in the region.


Sino-Indian War of 1962

The increasing unrest and escalating violence culminated in 1962 when military from China and India clashed in territorial disputes. China quickly overpowered the Indian military and occupied the area, claiming the area under administration and naming the region Aksai Chin. The border dispute between this area and other smaller areas is known as the Line of Actual Control.

China states that Aksai Chin is an integral part of China and does not recognise the inclusion of Aksai Chin as part of the Kashmir region.

China did not accept the boundaries of the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu, north of Aksai Chin and the Karakoram as proposed by the British.

  • China settled its border disputes with Pakistan under the 1963 Trans Karakoram Tractwith the provision that the settlement was subject to the final solution of the Kashmir dispute.


1965 and 1971 wars

In 1965 and 1971, heavy fighting broke out again between India and Pakistan. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 resulted in the defeat of Pakistan and the surrender of the Pakistani military in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh), which led to the signing of The Simla Agreement between India and Pakistan. By this treaty, both countries agreed to settle all issues by peaceful means and mutual discussions within the framework of the UN Charter. However, this form of track-two diplomacy was merely a ‘paper peace’ and did not reflect the situation in Kashmir that had left a bitter legacy of a deadly 20-year war.

The Simla agreement defined the Line of Control (not to be confused with the Line of Actual Control between India and China) separating Indian- and Pakistani-administered Kashmir. Current construction of a ‘fence’ around the Line of Control has been disputed by both China and Pakistan. India claims that the ‘fence’ reduces insurgent attacks. Until the ceasefire in 2003 the Line of Control was one of the most violence-prone de facto borders in the world and saw daily shelling, mortar fire, and machine gun exchanges between Indian and Pakistani troops and other militant groups.


The Simla Agreement had little bearing to events on the ground and there were increasingly organised uprisings. Opposition to the Indian administration, disputed state elections and military occupation led to some of the state’s legislative assemblies forming militant wings, which further created the catalyst for the Mujahideen insurgency, which continues to this day.

The three main militant groups in Kashmir are Hizbul Mujahideen; Lashkar-e-Toyeba; and Harkat-ul-Mujahideen. All have to some degree fractured into different, sometimes opposing factions, many of which have different objectives, views on how to resolve the conflict, and opinions on the use of violence. In recent years their membership and influence has diminished. A fourth militant group, the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front, a secular and nationalist group, has sought full independence for Kashmir from both India and Pakistan, and increasingly found its support reduced over the past few decades.

India claims these insurgents are Islamic terrorist groups from Pakistan-administered Kashmir and Afghanistan, fighting to make Jammu and Kashmir a part of Pakistan. They claim Pakistan supplies munitions to the terrorists and trains them in Pakistan. India states that the terrorists have killed many citizens in Kashmir and committed human rights violations whilst denying that their own armed forces are responsible for human rights abuses. On a visit to Pakistan in 2006, former Chief Minister of Kashmir Omar Abdullah remarked that foreign militants were engaged in reckless killings and mayhem in the name of religion. The Indian government has said militancy is now on the decline

The Pakistani government calls these insurgents “Kashmiri freedom fighters”, and claims that it provides them only moral and diplomatic support, although India believes they are Pakistan-supported terrorists from Pakistan Administered Kashmir. In October 2008, President Asif Ali Zardari of Pakistan called the Kashmir separatists “terrorists” in an interview with The Wall Street Journal. These comments sparked outrage amongst many Kashmiris, some of whom defied a curfew imposed by the Indian army to burn him in effigy.


The Kargil War of 1999

In mid-1999 insurgents and Pakistani soldiers from Pakistani Kashmir infiltrated Jammu and Kashmir. The insurgents took advantage of the severe winter conditions and occupied vacant mountain peaks of the Kargil range. By blocking the highway, they wanted to cut off the only link between the Kashmir Valley and Ladakh. This resulted in a high-scale conflict between the Indian Army and the Pakistan Army. International fears that the conflict could turn nuclear led to the involvement of the United Statespressurising Pakistan to retreat.

Opposing Views

The main opinions of India, Pakistan, and Kashmiris can be summarised as follows:

Indian view

  • India claims that as the Maharaja Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession in October 1947, handing control of the Kingdom of Jammu and Kashmir over to India, the region is theirs, having been validated by the Indian Independence Act and the departing British Empire.
  • India claims that the UN Resolution 1172 in 1948 accepted India’s stand regarding all outstanding issues between India and Pakistan.
  • India claims that Pakistan has not removed its military forces, which India views as one of the first steps in implementing a resolution.
  • India accused Pakistan of funding military groups in the region to create instability, and accuses Pakistan of waging a proxy war.
  • India accuses Pakistan of spreading anti-India sentiment among the people of Kashmir, through the media, to alter Kashmiri opinion.
  • According to India, most regions of Pakistani Kashmir, especially northern areas, continue to suffer from lack of political recognition, economic development and basic fundamental rights.

Pakistani view

  • Pakistan claims that according to the two-nation theory Kashmir should have been with Pakistan, because it has a Muslim majority.
  • Pakistan argues that India has shown disregard to the resolutions of the UN Security Council, and the United Nations Commission in India and Pakistan, by failing to hold a plebiscite.
  • Pakistan rejects Indian claims to Kashmir, centring around the Instrument of Accession. Pakistan insists that the Maharaja did not have the support of most Kashmiris. Pakistan also claims that the Maharaja handed over control of Jammu and Kashmir under duress, thus invalidating the legitimacy of the claims.
  • Pakistan claims that India violated the Standstill Agreement and that Indian troops were already in Kashmir before the Instrument of Accession was signed.
  • Pakistan claims that between 1990-1999 the Indian Armed Forces, its paramilitary groups, and counter-insurgent militias have been responsible for the deaths of 4,501 Kashmiri civilians. Also from 1990 to 1999, there are records of 4,242 women between the ages of 7-70 that have been raped. Similar allegations were also made by some human rights organisations.
  • Pakistan claims that the Kashmiri uprising demonstrates that the people of Kashmir no longer wish to remain part of India. Pakistan suggests that this means that either Kashmir wants to be with Pakistan or independent.

Kashmiri view

  • It is difficult to assess Kashmiri public opinion, and the region contains supporters of various different solutions to the conflict. Alongside those who align more closely to either the Pakistani or Indian government views, there are also those who favour independence for Kashmir. According to one independent survey public opinion:
    • 43% of the total adult population want complete independence for Kashmir.
    • 1% of Azad Kashmir (in Pakistan-administered Kashmir) want to join India compared to 28% in Jammu and Kashmir (in Indian-administered Kashmir).
    • 50% of Azad Kashmir want to join Pakistan compared to 2% in Jammu and Kashmir.
    • 14% of the total population want to make the Line of Control a permanent border.
  • The All Parties Hurriyat Conference represent the main separatist movement in Kashmir. However, it has multiple branches, each holding differing views on how Kashmir should proceed independently, which is indicative of the vast array of opinions that exist across the territory.
  • Whether it be due to religion or region, Kashmir is not a unified voice on the matter of its future. Apart from the unending call for democracy and human rights standards, Kashmiris differ in their opinions all over the territory, and this must be taken into account when discussing solutions.
  • 2008 Kashmir elections
  • Jammu and Kashmir state assembly elections, 2008
  • State elections were held in Indian administered Kashmir in seven phases, starting on 17 November and finishing on 24 December 2008. In spite of calls by separatists for a boycott, an unusually high turnout of more than 60% was recorded. The National Conference party, which was founded by Sheikh Abdullahand is regarded as pro-India, emerged with a majority of the seats. On 30 December, the Congress Party and the National Conference agreed to form a coalition government, with Omar Abdullah as Chief Minister. On 5 January 2009, Abdullah was sworn in as the eleventh Chief Minister of Jammu and Kashmir. In March 2009, Abdullah stated that only 800 militants were active in the state and out of these only 30% were Kashmiris.

2009 Kashmir protests

  • In 2009, protests started over the alleged rape and murder of two young womenin Shopian in South Kashmir. Suspicion pointed towards the police as the perpetrators. A judicial enquiry by a retired High Court official confirmed the suspicion, but a CBI enquiry reversed their conclusion. This gave fresh impetus to popular agitation against India. Significantly, the unity between the separatist parties was lacking this time.


  • 2010 Kashmir Unrest
  • The 2010 Kashmir unrest was series of protests in the Muslim majority Kashmir Valley in Jammu and Kashmir which started in June 2010. These protests involved the ‘Quit Jammu Kashmir Movement’ launched by the Hurriyat Conferenceled by Syed Ali Shah Geelani and Mirwaiz Umar Farooq, who had called for the complete demilitarisation of Jammu and Kashmir. The All Parties Hurriyat Conference made this call to protest, citing human rights abuses by Indian troops. Chief Minister Omar Abdullah attributed the 2010 unrest to the fake encounter staged by the military in Machil. Protesters shouted pro-independence slogans, defied curfews, attacked security forces with stones and burnt police vehicles and government buildings. The Jammu and Kashmir Police and Indian para-military forces fired live ammunition on the protesters, resulting in 112 deaths, including many teenagers. The protests subsided after the Indian government announced a package of measures aimed at defusing the tensions in September 2010.


  • UN Resolution
  • The United Nations Security Council Resolution 47 was passed by United Nations Security Council under chapter VI of UN Charter Resolutions passed under Chapter VI of UN charter are considered non binding and have no mandatory enforceability as opposed to the resolutions passed under Chapter VII
  • On January 24, 1957 the UN Security Council reaffirmed the 1948 resolution.The Security Council, reaffirming its previous resolution to the effect, “that the final disposition of the state of Jammu and Kashmir will be made in accordance with the will of the people expressed through the democratic method of a free and impartial plebiscite conducted under the auspices of United Nations,” further declared that any action taken by the Constituent Assembly formed in Kashmir ” would not constitute disposition of the state in accordance with the above principles
  • In March 2001, the then Secretary-General of the United NationsKofi Annan during his visit to India and Pakistan,remarked that Kashmir resolutions are only advisory recommendations and comparing with those on East Timor and Iraq was like comparing apples and oranges, since those resolutions were passed under chapter VII, which make it enforceable by UNSC.
  •  In 2003,then Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf announced that Pakistan was willing to back off from demand for UN resolutions for Kashmir.
  •  Moreover, India alleges that Pakistan failed to fulfill the pre-conditions by withdrawing its troops from the Kashmir region as was required under the same U.N. resolution of 13 August 1948 which discussed the plebiscite.


  •  Jammu and Kashmir is out of UN dispute list: In Nov 2010 the United Nations has removed Jammu and Kashmir from its list of disputed territories.
  •  It was major setback to Pakistan’s efforts to internationalise the Kashmir issue, the United Nations has excluded Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) from its list of unresolved international disputes under the observation of the UN Security Council (UNSC). Pakistan’s acting envoy in the UN, Amjad Hussain Sial, has lodged a strong protest, while Indian authorities welcomed the decision
  • In 2010, United States Ambassador to IndiaTimothy J. Roemer said that Kashmir is an ‘internal’ issue of India and not to be discussed on international level rather it should be solved by bilateral talks between India and Pakistan.
  •  He said, “The (US) President ( Barack Obama), I think was very articulate on this issue of Kashmir. This is an internal issue for India
  • Separatist Hurriyat leader Syed Ali Shah Geelani said that, “First of all when they say Kashmir is an internal issue, it is against the reality. The issue of Jammu and Kashmir is an international issue and it should be solved. As long as promises made to us are not fulfilled, this issue will remain unsolved
  • The UN later affirmed that the Jammu and Kashmir dispute remains on the United Nation Security Council’s agenda and denied claims that the UN had removed Kashmir from the list of unresolved issues.





The Armed Forces (Jammu and Kashmir) Special Powers Act, 1990

The Armed Forces (Jammu and Kashmir) Special Powers Act, 1990 was enacted in September, 1990


The Act


Armed Forces (Special Powers) Acts (AFSPA), are Acts of the Parliament of India that grant special powers to the Indian Armed Forces in what each act terms “disturbed areas”.

One such act passed on September 11, 1958 was applicable to the Seven Sister States in India’s northeast. Another passed in 1983 and applicable to Punjab and Chandigarh was withdrawn in 1997, roughly 14 years after it came to force. An act passed in 1990 was applied to Jammu and Kashmir and has been in force since

The Acts have received criticism from several sections for alleged concerns about human rights violations in the regions of its enforcement alleged to have happened.

 Politicians like P. Chidambaram and Saifuddin Soz of Congress have advocated revocation of AFSPA, while some like Amarinder Singh are against its revocation

Irom Chanu Sharmila who is also known as the “Iron Lady of Manipur” is a civil rights activist, who has been in a hunger strike for nearly 15 years. Her primary demand to the Indian government has been the repeal of the AFSPA.

The Articles in the Constitution of India empower state governments to declare a state of emergency due to one or more of the following reasons:

  • Failure of the administration and the local police to tackle local issues
  • Return of (central) security forces leads to return of miscreants/erosion of the “peace dividend”
  • The scale of unrest or instability in the state is too large for local forces to handle

In such cases, it is the prerogative of the state government to call for central help. In most cases, for example during elections, when the local police may be stretched too thin to simultaneously handle day-to-day tasks, the central government obliges by sending in the BSF and the CRPF. Such cases do not come under the purview of AFSPA. AFSPA is confined to be enacted only when a state, or part of it, is declared a ‘disturbed area’. Continued unrest, like in the cases of militancy and insurgency, and especially when borders are threatened, are situations where AFSPA is resorted to.

By Act 7 of 1972, the power to declare areas as being disturbed was extended to the central government.

 In a civilian setting, soldiers have no legal tender, and are still bound to the same command chain as they would be in a war theater. Neither the soldiers nor their superiors have any training in civilian law or policing procedures. This is where and why the AFSPA comes to bear – to legitimize the presence and acts of armed forces in emergency situations which have been deemed war-like.

 According to the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA), in an area that is proclaimed as “disturbed”, an officer of the armed forces has powers to:

After giving such due warning, Fire upon or use other kinds of force even if it causes death, against the person who is acting against law or order in the disturbed area for the maintenance of public order,

  • Destroy any arms dump, hide-outs, prepared or fortified position or shelter or training camp from which armed attacks are made by the armed volunteers or armed gangs or absconders wanted for any offence.
  • To arrest without a warrant anyone who has committed cognizable offences or is reasonably suspected of having done so and may use force if needed for the arrest.
  • To enter and search any premise in order to make such arrests, or to recover any person wrongfully restrained or any arms, ammunition or explosive substances and seize it.
  • Stop and search any vehicle or vessel reasonably suspected to be carrying such person or weapons.
  • Any person arrested and taken into custody under this Act shall be made present over to the officer in charge of the nearest police station with least possible delay, together with a report of the circumstances occasioning the arrest.
  • Army officers have legal immunity for their actions. There can be no prosecution, suit or any other legal proceeding against anyone acting under that law. Nor is the government’s judgment on why an area is found to be disturbed subject to judicial review.
  • Protection of persons acting in good faith under this Act from prosecution, suit or other legal proceedings, except with the sanction of the Central Government, in exercise of the powers conferred by this Act.





United Nations view

When India presented its second periodic report to the United Nations Human Rights Committee in 1991, members of the UNHRC asked numerous questions about the validity of the AFSPA. They questioned the constitutionality of the AFSPA under Indian law and asked how it could be justified in light of Article 4 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, ICCPR. On 23 March 2009, UN Commissioner for Human Rights Navanethem Pillay asked India to repeal the AFSPA. She termed the law as “dated and colonial-era law that breach contemporary international human rights standards.



On 31 March 2012, the UN asked India to revoke AFSPA saying it had no place in Indian democracy. Christof Heyns, UN’s Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions said “During my visit to Kashmir, AFSPA was described to me as ‘hated’ and ‘draconian’. It clearly violates International Law. A number of UN treaty bodies have pronounced it to be in violation of International Law as well.




Current Unrest: Ever since Commander Burhan Wani was martyred by Indian Security Forces on July 8th 2016, Entire valley is again in turmoil. Valley is seized under severe curfew and Human Rights violations are happening in every nook and corner. More than 100 unarmed protesters have been killed and thousands injured. More than 100 youth have lost their eye sight due to pellet injuries. There is massive hit to economy and Education. Mental Trauma is increasing each day passing. A peaceful resolution is in need to resolve this political issue of Kashmir once for all. This Political Dialogue needs to include people from Hurriyat, J-E-I Civil Societies and other Non Governmental Bodies of Jammu&Kashmir who can sit together and resolve Kashmir peacefully. Please be aware that this is not possible without bringing India and Pakistan delegates together on a table to discuses. According to various intellectual i have spoken these days gave me an idea as how and what should we do next to resolve Kashmir.  I personally believe that we should start following points

1: Talk to Hurriyat Fractions and Let them come on one moral ground of

Seeking resolution to Kashmir. There should be no second thought .Full Autonomy should be given to the kashmiri people on the both sides by constituting regional assemblies in all the five regions and only the portfolios of defence, Foreign affairs and Currency must be managed by India and Pakistan respectively in their current administrated parts of J&K.


2: We have to bring Human Rights organizations on board to discuses Kashmir and violations happening here.

3: There should be withdrawal of Para military forces in entire Jammu&kashmir.

4: There should be revocation of Laws like PPO, PSA and AFSPA from entire J&K, To start with Government can remove the AFSPA from JAMMU CITY AND SRINAGAR CITY   and later on removal can be moved further.

5: There should be immediate halt  to terrorism and Religious Extremism sponsored by rogue elements in Pakistani military establishment and Extremist  parties.

6: All the political prisoners must be released in india and Pakistani administrated Kashmir.

7: Establishment of Judicial enquiry commissions on disappearances and political killings.(An international Human Rights organization to sit in the commission)

8: Opening up of the borders in order to help people to people interaction are immediate steps which could provide relief to the Kashmiri people and initiate an atmosphere of tranquillity for the next step.

9:Rehabilitation of Kashmiri Pandits according to their own wishes.

10: Institutionalizing Intra-Kashmir Dialogue among all Kashmiris living in the Valley, Ladakh, Jammu, Pakistan Administered Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan.

11: Compensation and amnesty to those killed, tortured and injured under rehabilitation policies to be implemented by International NGO’S.

12: Return of power Projects to the state government or yearly share of profit to be given to the state.


13: A sustainable economy consisting of models for industrial agricultural and touristic developments should be encourages and invested by both countries.

14: J-E-I has been involved into extremism vis-a-vis sponsored by Pakistan,we must talk to them  and bring them into confidence of accepting ground realities of kashmir in south asian conflict.

15: We must involve  sane voices of j&k, india and Pakistan  for whom people have acceptance of listening and understanding.

Post Unrest or Current Position 

Keeping the current situation in mind, Our youth in particular needs much attention. They have seen worst  times .We must initiate Peace camps, Leadership building and advocacy trainings  innovation and acceleration. With these initiatives, we can pull our young generation out of this Makabra.


(Special thanks to Sir, Junaid Qureshi for various inputs and  Zaffar Sahib for brief History)

Muzamil Maqbool is a Peace Educator and Life-Skills Specialist at Various.

He is founder of Rumi Centre for  GLOBAL PEACE.He can be reached at”

Other Inputs: Internet





My Beloved!

Last Year, on this day My Peer-o-Murshid left to heavenly abode, The world hereafter.

Noor Din Beigh  commonly  known as “LALA SOB”  to the masses.

He was great human being,mystic,Fakir and way beyond our imagination. He was seeker and lover away from worldly attachments.He had surrendered himself to God and became Sufi. He had dwelled himself into spirituality since his childhood.”Nobody wishes heaven if the price is death. Nobody  will wishes immortality if the cost is death but  this is what love is  “DEATH” from this arises the resurrection of new you, pure virgin and the calls of heart gets answered. until the ego is alive , there is no possibility of love to happen. when darkness of ego is blown away with loginess,urgency,search of truth.this becomes possible. For Rumi, it happened when shams Tabrizi arrived and stolen his heart and mind and then love occupied this vacuum. When someone asked shams (whose head was full of ideas and desire) he said, Tell me about the divine mystery. Shams said, i can tell you the mystery. but only to someone in whom i can see myself . This mystery i will tell only  to myself, i don’t see myself in you. I see someone else. The mind has to be emptied, fall attachments, greed , darkness,passion and for this the teacher  The sheikh has to hit lovefully until the mind is shattered. The existence of  the beloved cannot be proven physically nor it is a fantasy. This presence in best have been given many names in different cultures,yet the presence remains nameless. You may call it Allah, Brahman,Reality, Truth or any other name because that is what best mind can try to do. give the name to the nameless. The sheikh is a mirror, a reminder of that presence. Understanding of this mystery comes through the sheikh and transforms all the amenities of the seeker. Rumi says, I have  phrases in whole pages memorized but nothing can be proven. you must wait until you begin to live the love. be patient, utterly patient.The journey which begins with love towards GOD, A moment comes when finally union happens, all boundaries get dissolved. Then this “I ” is no more different from that. As Al-hillaj Mansoor cried out Anal  Haq(I AM THAT) then total emptiness. “I”  is no more then so who will call whom? Just a vast emptiness which is best described by sufi is ” HU” That which was. That which exists and will be. No word can ever contain the infinitude presence once the consciousness arises. After this volcanic experience, one says what happened,

Sufi Replied “Hu” “HU”



His  distance has made me write this ballad in kashmiri. 

“Durshun Haavum Laalo, Ye ‘Khna Soon’e saaalo. Durshun Haavum Laalo, Ye ‘Khna Soon’e saaalo.  Be paraan say az zaroori, che haavum Roi’e wen door’i. Durshun Haavu Laalo, Ye ‘Khna Soon’e saaalo.”

In your love i have lost my days and nights, i want, i want to embrace you with my love. come close to me! Come Close to me!
While crossing the river, i am stranded in the middle, i am struggling, lead me to the shore, oh! my guide my prophet! Lead me to the shore.
Secrets should be revealed to the compassionate. Why reveal it to the impassive, ‘O’my guide, my prophet!
Come close to me! Come Close to me!
‘o’ little bird, would you say it to this caged creature! what cure can be there for the death, it is trying to break this rattling cage. In your love i lost my days and nights, I want to embrace you with my love. Come Close to me, and Come.


May the Peace Prevail.

(Muzamil Maqbool is a life-Skills Specialist  and Peace Educator. He has worked with many international organization  promoting world peace. He can be reached at



My “ByGone” Era

Well!! Today is my birthday. I don’t feel anything special about it.Neither i am cutting a cake nor bursting/ blowing balloons and candles.I never celebrated, In fact i was never among those lucky kids whose parents would ask them one month prior to their birthday’s(Son, What present do you want on your birthday? Ahhh!! I want a Lamborghini, And DAD proudly says consider it done and son say(You are best dad ever)!! Neither i got opportunity of my parents walking up to my bed on my birthday(like those of Hollywood scenes)waking me up and wishing me Happy Birthday, Then making me close my eyes and walking with me downstairs to the lawn asking to open my eyes and while i see my present (MY Lamborghini Car) in front of me!!! Hang on!! Lets cut this shit. Shall we, Reality is that was never me.Never!! But yes!! I remember once in 2011 when i was working with Microsoft. Around 11:55,when almost entire Microsoft floor gathered around me and wished me happy birthday. Imagine 65 co-workers taking me up by my arms and legs and bumping me up into the air, kicking my butt and the leaving me down onto the floor. It was all together an unforgettable moment experienced first time ever in my life on that birthday. Later on my friends took me to the cafeteria where we cut the birthday cake. It was my first ever birthday cake that i cut on that day. I felt so special. Today when i remember that moment i laugh at me and see how time has changed me personally and professionally.Through these years,i have learned to live happily no matter what comes to me, spread happiness, avoid negative people and invite positives in your life. I have learned to be strong especially from last 4 years which taught me the real meaning of resistance and Patience. I feel free, without any remorse, without any grudges to anyone, with holding any revenge for anyone. People often talk about torture, injustice, homicide and all but little less we hear about problems at workplace in kashmir. Yes, you heard it right.Kashmir is the only place on this mother earth where people see your Talent less and  praising your bosses  more. IF YOU AIN’T FOOTLOCKER OF YOUR BOSSES(ESPECIALLY KASHMIRIS) YOU AIN’T NOTHING.I was’t one among those Ass’s follower, but A talented rebel who wouldn’t want to be dictated. For them i became an outlaw!!! Despite being a guy, i have faced many challenges, problems, faced real mental traumas at my previous organization. I call that Git-mo, Yes short from for Guantanamo Bay Where my own people(Kashmiris) harassed me, dis-formed me, tormented  me emotionally and mentally. Those who were junior to me decreed me, Those who were near to me ,back stabbed me, Those who were taking, advises, suggestions for both of their personal and professional life left me unswerving like a victim of Vietnam war. Rumors spread, Lies became headlines, Gossips became dillydally and Sympathies charade. I at one point of time thought leaving my job and joining some better one, Even many other pseudo friends of mine suggested me the same, advising that i have talent and can crack any interview in many international organizations. I was very narked of working with many organizations in Bangalore and Delhi and didn’t want to go back to those places. In fact i had come back from Indian states spending almost five years.Slowly the all environment in my organization changed people calling me Muzamil Sir to muza . It was not our closeness of friendship but their attitude on relaxing chairs. Walhaz Yoou’er Became Wala Yoou’er Depressingly  not Humanely, sarcastically but definitely not friendly. One evening, i decided to stay back and accept all with what i had. I went through tough times of people mocking me directly and indirectly. Especially those who forgot that once they were they at very position i was and if luck,boot licking had not favored them then they would have been sharing the same boat i was sailing.

.  Times change,so change minds so change people and their perceptions.One day while sitting in the apple orchard of renowned justice of Baramulla, where my i was stationed. My thoughts rolled down into tears and gave strength to my pen, I wrote the these lines of Misfortune and now my forgettable past. It was my another muzamil, My soul consoling with me, advising me stay put and strong.
“Problems open new doors for you,Problems make you correct,Problems teach us new lessons,Problems reveal your hidden potential,Problems Build up your self-Confidence. You will be attacked, You will be teased, You will be Mocked and cheated. People will lie about you, People will break you,Recess you but you have to stand strong. Best part is in these tough times you stand alone and that is the time when you have to say I AM VERY STRONG!!!! I am not that person which you have heard from others, I am that person what you have to observe and analyse.Sometimes truth remains behind ROCKS and i am sure someone is looking above to remove that debris from my path of success.” Every day in every way i am getting better and better.”

I have programmed my self to be burden free of thinking my past. I roam revenge free and feel like a bird and with this confession of mine i also feel free of hatred, revenge, vengeance and reprisal  from all my four chambers. I seek good to every person who did injustice to me but then a quote of maulana Rumi written on the wall of my room reads as: “Those who dig holes for others, They fell in the same holes. No right in this world was left unrewarded and no wrong was left unpunished” Let me hit the hay now!! Sweet Dreams.

With Love
Muzamil Maqbool

“Muzamil Maqbool is a Peace Educator and Life-Skills Specialist at Various. He can be reached at”

“Iqbal” Synonym for World Peace!

“IQBAL “   Synonym for world peace


Dr.Sir Muhammad Iqbal, also known as Allama Iqbal was a philosopher, poet and politician in British India who was born on 9 November 1877 and died on 21th April 1938. He is considered as one of the most important figures in Urdu literature, with literary work in both Urdu and Persian languages. He was also called as Muslim philosophical thinker of modern times. Iqbal is known as Shair-e-Mushriq meaning (Poet of the East.) He is also called Muffakir-e-Pakistan (“The Inceptor of Pakistan”) and Hakeem-ul-Ummat (“The Sage of the Ummah”). In Iran and Afghanistan he is famous as Iqbāl-e Lāhorī or Iqbal of Lahore, and he is most appreciated for his Persian work. Pakistan Government had recognised him as its “national poet.He has different literary and narrative works. His first poetry book, Asrar-e-Khudi, appeared in the Persian language in 1915, and other books of poetry include Rumuz-i-Bekhudi, Payam-i-Mashriq and Zabur-i-Ajam. Amongst these his best known Urdu works are Bang-i-Dara, Bal-i-Jibril, Zarb-i Kalim and a part of Armughan-e-Hijaz and also Pas che bayad kard.He had series of lectures in different educational institutions that were later on published by Oxford press as ‘’the Reconstruction of Islamic religious thoughts in Islam’’. Iqbal was influenced by the teachings of Sir Thomas Arnold, his philosophy teacher at Government college Lahore, Arnold’s teachings determined Iqbal to pursue higher education in West. In 1905, he travelled to England for his higher education. Iqbal qualified for a scholarship from Trinity College in Cambridge and obtained Bachelor of Arts in 1906, and in the same year he was called to the bar as a barrister from Lincoln’s Inn. In 1907, Iqbal moved to Germany to study doctorate and earned PhD degree from the Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich in 1908. Working under the guidance of Friedrich Hommel, Iqbal published his doctoral thesis in 1908 entitled: The Development of Metaphysics in Persia. During his study in Europe, Iqbal began to write poetry in Persian. He prioritized it because he believed he had found an easy way to express his thoughts. He would write continuously in Persian throughout his life. Iqbal, after completing his Master of Arts degree in 1899, initiated his career as a reader of Arabic at Oriental College and shortly was selected as a junior professor of philosophy at Government College Lahore, where he had also been a stundent; Iqbal worked there until he left for England in 1905. In 1908, Iqbal returned from England and joined again the same college as a professor of philosophy and English literature. At the same period Iqbal began practicing law at Chief Court Lahore, but soon Iqbal quit law practice, and devoted himself in literary works and became an active member of Anjuman-e-Himayat-e-Islam. In 1919, he became the general secretary of the same organisation. Iqbal’s thoughts in his work primarily focus on the spiritual direction and development of human society, centred around experiences from his travels and stays in Western Europe and the Middle East. He was profoundly influenced by Western philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche, Henri Bergson and Goethe.

The poetry and philosophy of Maulana Rumi bore the deepest influence on Iqbal’s mind. Deeply grounded in religion since childhood, Iqbal began intensely concentrating on the study of Islam, the culture and history of Islamic civilization and its political future, while embracing Rumi as his guide.

Iqbal had a great role in Muslim political movement. Iqbal had remained active in the Muslim League. He did not support Indian involvement in World War I, as well as the Khilafat movement and remained in close touch with Muslim political leaders such as Maulana Mohammad Ali and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. He was a critic of the mainstream Indian National Congress, which he regarded as dominated by Hindus and was disappointed with the League when during the 1920s, it was absorbed in factional divides between the pro-British group led by Sir Muhammad Shafi and the centrist group led by Jinnah.

Ideologically separated from Congress Muslim leaders, Iqbal had also been disillusioned with the politicians of the Muslim League owing to the factional conflict that plagued the League in the 1920s. Discontent with factional leaders like Sir Muhammad Shafi and Sir Fazl-ur-Rahman, Iqbal came to believe that only Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a political leader capable of preserving this unity and fulfilling the League’s objectives on Muslim political empowerment. Building a strong, personal correspondence with Jinnah, Iqbal was an influential force in convincing Jinnah to end his self-imposed exile in London, return to India and take charge of the League. Iqbal firmly believed that Jinnah was the only leader capable of drawing Indian Muslims to the League and maintaining party unity before the British and the Congress:

In his presidential address on December 29, 1930, Iqbal outlined a vision of an independent state for Muslim-majority provinces in north-western India, “I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single state. Self-government within the British Empire, or without the British Empire, the formation of a consolidated Northwest Indian Muslim state appears to me to be, at least of Northwest India.

Iqbal was the first patron of the historical, political, religious, cultural journal of Muslims of British India. This journal played an important part in the Pakistan movement. The name of this journal is The Journal Tolu-e-Islam. Iqbal wrote two books on the topic of The Development of Metaphysics in Persia and The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam and many letters in English language, besides his Urdu and Persian literary works. In which, he revealed his thoughts regarding Persian ideology and Islamic Sufism – in particular, his beliefs that Islamic Sufism activates the searching soul to a superior perception of life. He also discussed philosophy, God and the meaning of prayer, human spirit and Muslim culture, as well as other political, social and religious problems.

Iqbal’s views on the Western world were applauded by men including United States Supreme Court Associate Justice William O. Douglas, who said that Iqbal’s beliefs had “universal appeal”.In his Soviet biography N. P. Anikoy wrote, “(Iqbal is) great for his passionate condemnation of weak will and passiveness, his angry protest against inequality, discrimination and oppression in all forms i.e., economic, social, political, national, racial, religious, etc., his preaching of optimism, an active attitude towards life and man’s high purpose in the world, in a word, he is great for his assertion of the noble ideals and principles of humanism, democracy, peace and friendship among peoples.

Iqbal on Peace and Youth:

Iqbal says in Khutb-e-Allahbad:  A community which is inspired by feelings of ill will towards other communities is low and ignoble. I entertain the highest respect, for the customs, laws religious and social institutions of other communities. Nay! It is my duty According to the teachings of the Holy Quran, Even to defend their places of worship if need be.

One should also not forget these lines from Javid Nama,

“Hafay badrah, berlaba Gurdan khata ast, Kafiro Moomin, Hamay khalqay khuda ast, Aadmiyat,Atheraamaye aadmi, baa khabar shu,az maqami aadmi.Banday’e Ishq az Kkhuda gerreat Tareeq,  Me shaved ber Kafir’o momin shafeeq.”

javid nama



The themes of his poetry were of great importance and still they are regarded as a great source of inspiration. His concept of “Self” (khudi) is based on the concept of self-realization which integrates all the known facts of the universe into single unity, and this single unity is the concept of God. His concept of self-realization is not merely based on Divine power, rather he highlighted that in order for us to seek the truth of our existence; proper training, experiences and education plays a vital role.



His philosophies promoted the social norms and values and in order to progress social interaction is very much important.
“Individual exists by virtue of his social contacts. He is nonentity without that association. He is like a wave in the river and has no existence outside it.”

Iqbal was very much aware of the Importance of “education”, and according to him education is the sole of human being which creates selflessness and generosity. He focused on the youth’s education because he knew that youth would hold the future, and without the intellect and proper education future would all be murky and gloomy for Muslims. He asserted:

“Arts and sciences O lively and eager youth,
Requires a keen intellect not Western clothes
What is needed in this quest is Vision?
Not this or that particular head-dress.
If you have a subtle intellect and a discriminating mind they would suffice to guarantee success.”

Iqbal addressed Muslim youth in his poetry by calling them “Shaheen” because,

Shaheen has 5 characteristics that Allama Iqbal wanted to see in the youth

Lofty Flight (Buland Parwaaz)
Strong Vision and Sight (Taez Nigah)
Preference for Seclusion (Khilwat Pasand)
Does not settle itself in a permanent and single dwelling/nest (Ashiana nahin banata)
Does not feed on someone else’s pray (Kissi aur ka Shikaar nahin kahata)

So, the positive attitude and critical thinking of youth held the utmost importance to him.

Though we all admire the poetry of Iqbal, but are we still following his notions? Well, maybe or maybe not, but I guess “maybe not” is more accurate.  His concepts of “selflessness”, “unity” are disappearing or maybe they have already disappeared long ago. The turmoil and chaos which we are facing is the result of disarray prevailing in the society. As per the message of IQBAL, no nation can flourish without firm unity. Lack of education and co-existence is the main culprit that is creating fuss in the society and by educating our individuals we can surly make our kashmir a better place to live and I am quite hopeful that Insha’Allah we will make kashmir a place where we can eliminate the difference between people. We ought to have a critical thinking and we ought to think about the present of kashmir and prepare ourselves for the coming future.

Iqbal died on 21st  April 1938 due to severe throat infection that lasted for long till his death. He will be remembered for good.
(Aasmaan teri lahad per shabnam afshaani kare
Sabza e noorasta is ghar ki nigeh baani kare)

Some link and Couplets of Allama Sahib.





Arise and tune the harp of brotherhood,Give us back the cup of the wine of love!

Bring once more days of peace to the world,Give a message of peace to them that seek battle!

Mankind are the cornfield and thou the harvest,Thou art the goal of Life’s caravan.

The leaves are scattered by Autumn’s fury:Oh, do thou pass over our gardens as the Spring!

Receive from our downcast browsThe homage of little children and of young men and old!It is to thee that we owe our dignityAnd silently undergo the pains of life.


Youtube links about Allama sahib (MaulanaTariq Jameel defines him “The Great Urdu peot”)

Dr.Israr ahmad about Allama Sahib

dua 1

dua 2


( Thanks to Zaffar Khaleel, Iqra Najeeb)

Special Thanks to Sir, Dr.Javid Iqbal.



“Muzamil Maqbool is a Peace Educator and Life-Skills Specialist  at Various.”