“IQBAL “ Synonym for world peace
Dr.Sir Muhammad Iqbal, also known as Allama Iqbal was a philosopher, poet and politician in British India who was born on 9 November 1877 and died on 21th April 1938. He is considered as one of the most important figures in Urdu literature, with literary work in both Urdu and Persian languages. He was also called as Muslim philosophical thinker of modern times. Iqbal is known as Shair-e-Mushriq meaning (Poet of the East.) He is also called Muffakir-e-Pakistan (“The Inceptor of Pakistan”) and Hakeem-ul-Ummat (“The Sage of the Ummah”). In Iran and Afghanistan he is famous as Iqbāl-e Lāhorī or Iqbal of Lahore, and he is most appreciated for his Persian work. Pakistan Government had recognised him as its “national poet.He has different literary and narrative works. His first poetry book, Asrar-e-Khudi, appeared in the Persian language in 1915, and other books of poetry include Rumuz-i-Bekhudi, Payam-i-Mashriq and Zabur-i-Ajam. Amongst these his best known Urdu works are Bang-i-Dara, Bal-i-Jibril, Zarb-i Kalim and a part of Armughan-e-Hijaz and also Pas che bayad kard.He had series of lectures in different educational institutions that were later on published by Oxford press as ‘’the Reconstruction of Islamic religious thoughts in Islam’’. Iqbal was influenced by the teachings of Sir Thomas Arnold, his philosophy teacher at Government college Lahore, Arnold’s teachings determined Iqbal to pursue higher education in West. In 1905, he travelled to England for his higher education. Iqbal qualified for a scholarship from Trinity College in Cambridge and obtained Bachelor of Arts in 1906, and in the same year he was called to the bar as a barrister from Lincoln’s Inn. In 1907, Iqbal moved to Germany to study doctorate and earned PhD degree from the Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich in 1908. Working under the guidance of Friedrich Hommel, Iqbal published his doctoral thesis in 1908 entitled: The Development of Metaphysics in Persia. During his study in Europe, Iqbal began to write poetry in Persian. He prioritized it because he believed he had found an easy way to express his thoughts. He would write continuously in Persian throughout his life. Iqbal, after completing his Master of Arts degree in 1899, initiated his career as a reader of Arabic at Oriental College and shortly was selected as a junior professor of philosophy at Government College Lahore, where he had also been a stundent; Iqbal worked there until he left for England in 1905. In 1908, Iqbal returned from England and joined again the same college as a professor of philosophy and English literature. At the same period Iqbal began practicing law at Chief Court Lahore, but soon Iqbal quit law practice, and devoted himself in literary works and became an active member of Anjuman-e-Himayat-e-Islam. In 1919, he became the general secretary of the same organisation. Iqbal’s thoughts in his work primarily focus on the spiritual direction and development of human society, centred around experiences from his travels and stays in Western Europe and the Middle East. He was profoundly influenced by Western philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche, Henri Bergson and Goethe.
The poetry and philosophy of Maulana Rumi bore the deepest influence on Iqbal’s mind. Deeply grounded in religion since childhood, Iqbal began intensely concentrating on the study of Islam, the culture and history of Islamic civilization and its political future, while embracing Rumi as his guide.
Iqbal had a great role in Muslim political movement. Iqbal had remained active in the Muslim League. He did not support Indian involvement in World War I, as well as the Khilafat movement and remained in close touch with Muslim political leaders such as Maulana Mohammad Ali and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. He was a critic of the mainstream Indian National Congress, which he regarded as dominated by Hindus and was disappointed with the League when during the 1920s, it was absorbed in factional divides between the pro-British group led by Sir Muhammad Shafi and the centrist group led by Jinnah.
Ideologically separated from Congress Muslim leaders, Iqbal had also been disillusioned with the politicians of the Muslim League owing to the factional conflict that plagued the League in the 1920s. Discontent with factional leaders like Sir Muhammad Shafi and Sir Fazl-ur-Rahman, Iqbal came to believe that only Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a political leader capable of preserving this unity and fulfilling the League’s objectives on Muslim political empowerment. Building a strong, personal correspondence with Jinnah, Iqbal was an influential force in convincing Jinnah to end his self-imposed exile in London, return to India and take charge of the League. Iqbal firmly believed that Jinnah was the only leader capable of drawing Indian Muslims to the League and maintaining party unity before the British and the Congress:
In his presidential address on December 29, 1930, Iqbal outlined a vision of an independent state for Muslim-majority provinces in north-western India, “I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single state. Self-government within the British Empire, or without the British Empire, the formation of a consolidated Northwest Indian Muslim state appears to me to be, at least of Northwest India.
Iqbal was the first patron of the historical, political, religious, cultural journal of Muslims of British India. This journal played an important part in the Pakistan movement. The name of this journal is The Journal Tolu-e-Islam. Iqbal wrote two books on the topic of The Development of Metaphysics in Persia and The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam and many letters in English language, besides his Urdu and Persian literary works. In which, he revealed his thoughts regarding Persian ideology and Islamic Sufism – in particular, his beliefs that Islamic Sufism activates the searching soul to a superior perception of life. He also discussed philosophy, God and the meaning of prayer, human spirit and Muslim culture, as well as other political, social and religious problems.
Iqbal’s views on the Western world were applauded by men including United States Supreme Court Associate Justice William O. Douglas, who said that Iqbal’s beliefs had “universal appeal”.In his Soviet biography N. P. Anikoy wrote, “(Iqbal is) great for his passionate condemnation of weak will and passiveness, his angry protest against inequality, discrimination and oppression in all forms i.e., economic, social, political, national, racial, religious, etc., his preaching of optimism, an active attitude towards life and man’s high purpose in the world, in a word, he is great for his assertion of the noble ideals and principles of humanism, democracy, peace and friendship among peoples.
Iqbal on Peace and Youth:
Iqbal says in Khutb-e-Allahbad: A community which is inspired by feelings of ill will towards other communities is low and ignoble. I entertain the highest respect, for the customs, laws religious and social institutions of other communities. Nay! It is my duty According to the teachings of the Holy Quran, Even to defend their places of worship if need be.
One should also not forget these lines from Javid Nama,
“Hafay badrah, berlaba Gurdan khata ast, Kafiro Moomin, Hamay khalqay khuda ast, Aadmiyat,Atheraamaye aadmi, baa khabar shu,az maqami aadmi.Banday’e Ishq az Kkhuda gerreat Tareeq, Me shaved ber Kafir’o momin shafeeq.”
The themes of his poetry were of great importance and still they are regarded as a great source of inspiration. His concept of “Self” (khudi) is based on the concept of self-realization which integrates all the known facts of the universe into single unity, and this single unity is the concept of God. His concept of self-realization is not merely based on Divine power, rather he highlighted that in order for us to seek the truth of our existence; proper training, experiences and education plays a vital role.
His philosophies promoted the social norms and values and in order to progress social interaction is very much important.
“Individual exists by virtue of his social contacts. He is nonentity without that association. He is like a wave in the river and has no existence outside it.”
Iqbal was very much aware of the Importance of “education”, and according to him education is the sole of human being which creates selflessness and generosity. He focused on the youth’s education because he knew that youth would hold the future, and without the intellect and proper education future would all be murky and gloomy for Muslims. He asserted:
“Arts and sciences O lively and eager youth,
Requires a keen intellect not Western clothes
What is needed in this quest is Vision?
Not this or that particular head-dress.
If you have a subtle intellect and a discriminating mind they would suffice to guarantee success.”
Iqbal addressed Muslim youth in his poetry by calling them “Shaheen” because,
Shaheen has 5 characteristics that Allama Iqbal wanted to see in the youth
Lofty Flight (Buland Parwaaz)
Strong Vision and Sight (Taez Nigah)
Preference for Seclusion (Khilwat Pasand)
Does not settle itself in a permanent and single dwelling/nest (Ashiana nahin banata)
Does not feed on someone else’s pray (Kissi aur ka Shikaar nahin kahata)
So, the positive attitude and critical thinking of youth held the utmost importance to him.
Though we all admire the poetry of Iqbal, but are we still following his notions? Well, maybe or maybe not, but I guess “maybe not” is more accurate. His concepts of “selflessness”, “unity” are disappearing or maybe they have already disappeared long ago. The turmoil and chaos which we are facing is the result of disarray prevailing in the society. As per the message of IQBAL, no nation can flourish without firm unity. Lack of education and co-existence is the main culprit that is creating fuss in the society and by educating our individuals we can surly make our kashmir a better place to live and I am quite hopeful that Insha’Allah we will make kashmir a place where we can eliminate the difference between people. We ought to have a critical thinking and we ought to think about the present of kashmir and prepare ourselves for the coming future.
Iqbal died on 21st April 1938 due to severe throat infection that lasted for long till his death. He will be remembered for good.
(Aasmaan teri lahad per shabnam afshaani kare
Sabza e noorasta is ghar ki nigeh baani kare)
Some link and Couplets of Allama Sahib.
Arise and tune the harp of brotherhood,Give us back the cup of the wine of love!
Bring once more days of peace to the world,Give a message of peace to them that seek battle!
Mankind are the cornfield and thou the harvest,Thou art the goal of Life’s caravan.
The leaves are scattered by Autumn’s fury:Oh, do thou pass over our gardens as the Spring!
Receive from our downcast browsThe homage of little children and of young men and old!It is to thee that we owe our dignityAnd silently undergo the pains of life.
Youtube links about Allama sahib (MaulanaTariq Jameel defines him “The Great Urdu peot”)
Dr.Israr ahmad about Allama Sahib
( Thanks to Zaffar Khaleel, Iqra Najeeb)
Special Thanks to Sir, Dr.Javid Iqbal.
“Muzamil Maqbool is a Peace Educator and Life-Skills Specialist at Various.”